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Taliban:
Islamic sect and government which once ruled Afghanistan. Osama bin Laden, who had given them at least $100 million, harbored him in that country. Known for savage treatment of women and destruction of ancient artifacts, they believe in Islamic purity and have zero tolerance for other religions. They put a $50 million bounty on the head of American President Bush in the last months of 2001. As the city of Kandahar fell on December 7, 2001, their leader, Mullah Omar, who had once vowed to fight to the death, fled the country.

 

terrorism:
The U.S. State Department defines terrorism as "premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience."

  

terrorist group:
A group which practices or has significant elements which are involved in terrorism.

  

toxin:
Poisonous substance produced by living organisms capable of causing disease when introduced into the body tissues.

 

transponder:
A device on an airliner which sends out signal allowing air traffic controllers to track an airplane. Transponders were disabled in some of the planes hijacked September 11, 2001.

 

Transportation Security Administration (TSA):
A new agency created by the Patriot Act of 2001 for the purpose of overseeing technology and security in American airports. The TSA, hoping to save 20 seconds per passenger, finally put an end to the question about the strangers handling their luggage. The TSA had been authorized to hire no more than 48,000 but hired over 54,000 and has promised to eliminate 6,000 screeners through attrition.

 

tularemia:
Tularemia is an infectious disease caused by a hardy bacterium, Francisella tularensis, found in animals, particularly especially rabbits, hares, and rodents. Symptoms depend upon how the person was exposed to tularemia but can include difficulty breathing, chest pain, bloody sputum, swollen and painful lymph glands, ulcers on the mouth or skin, swollen and painful eyes, and a sore throat. Symptoms usually appear from 3 to 5 days after exposures but sometimes will take up to two weeks. Tularemia is not spread from person to person, so people who have it need not be isolated.

 

Turkey:
A NATO ally which had promised to provide leadership in a peacekeeping force in Afghanistan. They did, however, demand contracts and assistance for long-term reconstruction projects in the war-torn nation and help with its own overwhelming debt.

Washington played a crucial role in helping Turkey get $16 billion in loans, at which time Turkey also said it would allow the United States to use military bases there if the United Nations approved military action against neighboring Iraq.

In March, 2003, during the war in Iraq, Turkey's government refused to allow American troops on their soil unless their demands to receive over $30 billion in loans and grants were met.

 

© Michelle Anderson 2001-2016